Saturday, February 24, 2024

They investigated the response of walnuts and almonds to high temperatures

In the context of high temperatures and increased pressure due to the lack of rain on plants, the research of technicians in this situation is transferred to productions outside the norm of cereals and oil seeds.

Climate changes affect the yield and quality of crops, and in this context, INTA Catamarca investigated the response of walnuts and almonds to high temperatures in the Central Valley.

With this information, they will step forward in creating future predictive and agroclimatic zoning models in the region.

CLIMATE CHANGE IN WALNUT AND ALMOND

For this purpose, seven different almond cultivars and the Chandler variety of walnut trees were analyzed to determine the response to the variability of these climate events in the Central Valley.

Nadia Valverder, researcher at INTA CatamarcaIt is emphasized that specific knowledge of this condition allows for a better choice when choosing what to plant.

One thing to keep in mind is that high temperatures, or the absence of low temperatures, during the winter cause flowering to not occur or occur with low intensity. and at the wrong time, it can change the physical characteristics, such as the nutritional composition of the fruits.

“The purpose of both studies is to be able to establish the temperatures at which different phenological stages occur, such as male and female flowering, to create a model with information on how cold and heat affect the quality of nut and almond at the end of the season,” he explained Valverde.

THE HEAT FACTOR

The provinces where the study was conducted—Mendoza, La Rioja, and Catamarca—have a dry climate where the summer temperature—the growing season of almonds and walnuts—is above 40 degrees.

“Today, temperatures above 40 degrees are recorded even in the spring, it advances the phenological stages, such as flowering, and affects the harvest cycle,” explained Valverdi. And he added: “The information from these investigations will allow the development of future predictive models and agroclimatic zoning in Argentina.”

Las high temperatures can affect the performance of photosystem 2, the device or system responsible for capturing light energy and turning it into chemical energy. This causes the shutdown of said system for safety and the release of excess energy as heat.

The process creates an increase in the temperature of the leaf, which causes the stomata to close, limiting the absorption of carbon dioxide and thus growth, whether vegetative or fruit.

In the research on almond trees, different genotypes of stems and crowns were analyzed, and the phenological stages, vegetative growth, photosynthetic capacity, and water status of the plant were measured.

The goal is to know the cultivars that best adapt to the hot climate of the central valley of Catamarca. By evaluating these traits in the field, they provide feedback for improvement programs to select and evaluate cultivars for different environments.

NOGALES RESULTS

In the case of research with walnut trees, many environments have been investigated, including commercial farms in Uco Valley and the Oasis (Mendoza), Chilecito y Famatena (La Rioja), and the Varelasin Catamarca.

Based on this geographical diversity, we intend to observe how different temperature gradients in different latitudes affect the phenological stage and the quality of the fruit at harvest.

“By evaluating the same cultivar under different environmental conditions, it will allow us to determine the effects that ambient temperature has not only on plant phenology, but also on the production and distribution of around fruit assimilates,” he said.

With this information, walnut producers will be able to make progress in developing adaptive productivity maps, not only for the regions currently being studied but also for other provinces of interest such as San Juan and Río Negro.

“We will provide decision tools for the producers They can predict the quality of the nut they will harvest that year according to the ambient temperature. With this, better marketing planning will be possible according to the climatic conditions of the year,” he concluded.

World Nation News Desk
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