Friday, December 09, 2022

Ebola-like virus from monkeys ‘ready’ to jump to humans

Ebola-like virus from monkeys 'ready' to jump to humans

an investigation of University of Colorado at Boulder (United States) warns that a family of viruses, already endemic in wild African primates and known to cause deadly Ebola-like symptoms In some monkeys, it is “ready to infect” humans.

Although such aneurysm Already considered a serious threat to macaque monkeys, no human infection has been recorded to date. And it is not known for certain what effect the virus would have on people if it jumped across species.

But the author reveals HIV Similarities (whose precursor originated in African monkeys), call for vigilance. According to the authors, another pandemic is not imminent and the public should not be worried.

“This animal virus has figured out how to gain access to human cells, multiply, and evade certain important immune mechanisms.”

but Call on the global health community to prioritize further studies of simian arteriolesIn both animals and humans, develop blood antibody tests for them and consider monitoring human populations with close contact with carrier animals.

“This animal virus has figured out how to gain access to human cells, multiply, and evade some of the important immune mechanisms we’d expect from an animal virus. It’s very rare. We have to pay attention to it. should.” Sarah Sawyer, lead author of the research, published in the scientific journal Cell.

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haand thousands of unique viruses that spread to animals around the world, most of which do not cause symptoms. In recent decades, a growing number of them have made the leap to humans, wreaking havoc on nave immune systems inexperienced in fighting them, as in 2012 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), the respiratory syndrome coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) in 2020.

For 15 years, Sawyer’s lab has used laboratory techniques and tissue samples from wild animals around the world to determine which animal viruses are most likely to jump to humans.

For this new study, he and first author Cody Warren, then a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California Biofrontiers Institute, focused on aneurysms, which are common in pigs and horses but poorly studied among non-primates.

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Specific, Simian hemorrhagic fever virus studied (SHFV), which causes a deadly disease similar to the Ebola virus and has caused fatal outbreaks in captive macaque colonies since the 1960s.

The study suggests that a molecule, or receptor, called CD163, plays an important role in the biology of simian aneurysms, allowing the virus to invade and infect target cells.

Through a series of laboratory experiments, the researchers discovered, to their surprise, that the virus was exceptionally efficient at causing the human version of CD163 to enter human cells and rapidly make copies of itself.

Like HIV and its precursor, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), Simian arteriviruses also appear to attack immune cellsDeactivation of the main defense mechanisms and taking root in the body in the long run.

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“The parallels between this virus and the simian virus that led to the HIV epidemic are deep,” says Warren, now an associate professor in the Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine.

a Wide range of African monkeys are already carriers Various aneurysms have high viral loads, often without symptoms, and some species frequently interact with humans and have been known to bite and scratch people.

“Just because we haven’t yet diagnosed an arterial infection in humans, doesn’t mean that no humans have been exposed. We haven’t seen that,” Warren says.

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Researchers point out that HIV was also unheard of in the 1970s, possibly originating from infected non-human primates in Africa and Jumped to humans sometime in the early 20th century, When it began killing young people in the United States in the 1980s, there were no serology tests and no treatment.

Sawyer concluded by saying that there is no guarantee that these simian arteriovenous viruses will jump to humans. But one thing is certain: more viruses will reach humans, causing disease.

“IThat COVID-19 virus is just the latest A long chain of animal-to-human spread events, some of which have caused global devastation. Our hope is that by raising awareness of the virus, we can get ahead of it, so that if human infections start to occur, we will be aware quickly,” Sawyer said.

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