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Monday, October 3, 2022

Four eye diseases caused by diabetes

Diabetes can affect eye health when blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is too high.

When these diseases are in their early stages, they often have no symptoms. Photo: Shutterstock.

High blood glucose levels may be a precursor to some vision problems in diabetic patients. These conditions include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, cataracts and glaucoma.

Typically, patients with diabetes They develop poor eyesight or even blindness. Therefore, it is important to take steps to prevent or stop the progression of diabetic eye disease while taking care of your health. diabetes.

  • control blood glucose levels;

  • blood pressure;

  • cholesterol;

  • quit smoking cigarettes;

  • Perform an extensive eye examination once a year.

Once damage begins, there are usually no warning signs of diabetic eye disease or vision loss.

Thus, a comprehensive eye examination with enhanced vision helps the doctor to identify and treat eye problems at an early stage, even before significant loss of vision.

How does diabetes affect my eyes?

When people change their health plan diabetes or medication for diabetes sometimes their vision is blurred for days or weeks.

High blood glucose levels can change fluid levels or lead to swelling of eye tissues that help you focus, resulting in blurry vision. This type of blurred vision is temporary and disappears when glucose levels return to normal.

If blood glucose levels remain high for too long, it can damage the blood vessels at the back of the eyes.

This damage can begin during prediabetes, when glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed. diabetes. Fluid may leak from damaged blood vessels, causing swelling.

New weak blood vessels may also begin to form. These blood vessels can bleed in the middle of the eye, form scar tissue, or cause pressure to rise to dangerous levels in the inside of the eye.

Four eye diseases that can pose a threat to vision:

diabetic retinopathy

Early on, blood vessels may weaken, swell, or leak into the retina. This stage is known as non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

However, it is likely that some of the blood vessels will close, causing new blood vessels to proliferate on the surface of the retina, causing serious vision problems.

Approximately one in three people diabetes older than 40 already have some symptoms of diabetic retinopathy

diabetic macular edema

AT diabetes causes macular edema, known as diabetic macular edema. Over time, this disease can interfere with clear vision, causing partial vision loss or blindness.

Macular edema usually develops in people who already have other signs of retinopathy.

glaucoma

This is a group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve (the bundle of nerves that connects the eye to the brain).

AT diabetes doubles the chance of getting glaucoma, which can lead to vision loss and blindness if left untreated.

waterfalls

people with diabetes They often have cloudy lenses. Cloudy lenses are known as cataracts.

people with diabetes may develop cataracts at a younger age than people who do not have one.

Who is most likely to develop diabetic eye disease?

anyone with diabetes You may develop diabetic eye disease. Your risk increases if left untreated:

  • high blood glucose

  • high blood pressure

  • High blood cholesterol and smoking can also increase your risk of developing diabetic eye disease.

AT diabetes occurring only during pregnancy, known as diabetes gestational, usually does not cause vision problems. Researchers still don’t know exactly why this happens.

Your chances of developing diabetic eye disease increase the longer you are treated. diabetes.

Consider starting testing if:

Diabetes Type 1, annually for 5 years from diagnosis.

Diabetes Type 2, annual checkups immediately after diagnosis.

Diabetes Gestational: women with diabetes Type 1 and type 2 require an eye test before pregnancy or in the first 3 months of pregnancy.

What are the symptoms of diabetic eye disease?

Especially with diabetic retinopathy, you may not feel pain or vision changes as damage begins to build up inside your eye.

When symptoms do occur, they may include:

  • blurry or wavy vision

  • frequent changes in vision, sometimes from day to day

  • dark areas or loss of vision

  • poor color vision

  • black spots or dark threads (also known as floating spots)

  • flashes of light

Talk to your eye doctor if you have any of these symptoms.

When should I see a doctor immediately?

Call your doctor right away if you notice any sudden changes in your vision, including flashes of light, notice more black spots (floating spots) than usual, or feel a veil closing in on your eyes. These vision changes can be symptoms of a retinal detachment and are a medical emergency.

A comprehensive eye examination with enhanced vision is considered the best way to detect eye problems caused by diabetes.

Also doctor:

The specialist may also suggest other tests, depending on your medical history, and may suggest eye exams more than once a year, in addition to closely monitoring your condition. diabetes.

Care

Doctors may treat advanced eye problems with medications, laser treatments, surgery, or a combination of these options.

Medications

Your doctor may treat your eyes with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) medications such as aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab.

These medicines block the growth of abnormal blood vessels in the eye.

Anti-VEGF drugs can stop fluid leakage, which can help treat diabetic macular edema.

laser treatment

Laser treatment, also known as photocoagulation, involves small burns of the eye with a beam of light. This method treats blood vessels that are leaking fluid, as well as swelling or accumulation of fluid.

There are two types of laser treatment:

  • A scattered laser, also known as panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), which covers a large area of ​​the retina. This method treats the growth of abnormal blood vessels, known as proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

vitrectomy

A vitrectomy is an operation to remove the clear, jelly-like material that fills the inside of the eye, known as the vitreous humor. The procedure treats severe bleeding or scar tissue problems caused by proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Scar tissue can cause the retina to detach from the tissue behind it, similar to peeling wallpaper off a wall. A retina that becomes loose or detaches completely can lead to blindness.

Lens cataract surgery

In a surgical center or hospital, a doctor may remove the cloudy lens of the eye where the cataract has formed and replace it with an artificial lens. As a rule, after cataract surgery, most people’s vision improves.

What if I have already partially lost my sight due to diabetes?

Ask your ophthalmologist to help you find a visually impaired clinic and rehabilitation clinic.

Specialized ophthalmologists can help you manage vision loss that cannot be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, medications, or surgery.

Source consulted here.

World Nation News Desk
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