If changes in agricultural and livestock production techniques do not begin to be adopted in Mexico, production yields will fall between 5 and 20 percent in the next two decades and up to 80 percent by the end of the 21st century, according to predictions. National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM).
Due to the expected scenario, the Ministry of Agriculture and Social Development (SADER), together with UNAM, the University of Yucatán, INIFAP, the University of Chapingo and civil associations, have experiments and technological innovation projects which was initiated to deal with climate disaster scenarios. drought or flood.
Among other actions, we started to keep cuttings or herbaceous plants that can be a substitute when there is no fodder to feed the livestock, as well as the greater use of cassava, when there is no There is corn available for livestock. These and other innovations were explained at the conference “Alternatives to deal with climate change in food production, with an emphasis on milk production”, convened by the Ministry of Agriculture, with the participation of academics and agricultural technicians.
At the interdisciplinary conference, the undersecretary of Food Self-Sufficiency of SADER, Víctor Suárez Carrera, commented that Mexico is facing a complicated year with a lack of stored water. Faced with this panorama, he reported that the Technical Support Strategy (EAT) of Milk brings practical proposals to respond to the climate phenomenon, such as silage from agricultural waste to make it nutritious food for ruminants .
In addition, cassava is grown in tropical regions to reduce the dependence of corn on livestock feed, as it has been proven that it is a plant adapted to adverse tropical conditions, able to thrive in acidic soils. , not very fertile and long. during the drought, he added.
Agroecological transition must be implemented because there is less water available for food production. Water for irrigation is for crops for direct human consumption and we see the need to use waste to feed livestock, he warned.
“We must abandon old models and embrace practices that respect and preserve our environment. The transition towards an agroecological system is the path towards a greener, healthier and more sustainable future,” said Suárez Carrera.
The coordinator of Mexico’s Climate Change Research Program at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Francisco Estrada Porrúa, warns that, under a scenario of no action, climate change will significantly reduce the production capacity of agriculture in Mexico.
Among its possible effects is a reduction in yield between five percent and 20 percent in the next two decades and up to 80 percent by the end of the century for some plants and states in the country.
The professor-researcher of the Autonomous University of Yucatán (UADY), Juan Carlos Ku Vera, stated that the loss of energy can be reduced by cattle fed with Leucaena leucocephala leaves in the silvopastoral system.
In addition, he said, the leaves and fruits of some types of legume can reduce the emission of enteric methane by cattle in the silvopastoral system. He suggested that it would be possible to produce meat and milk with low greenhouse gas emissions and could move to the Mexican Carbon Market to compensate milk producers in poor livestock regions. He added that cheap milk can be produced in the Yucatan Peninsula which can reverse child malnutrition.
The researcher of the National Institute of Forestry, Agricultural and Livestock Research (INIFAP), Campus Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Alma Liz Vargas de la Mora, remains under a production method for the management of the livestock agroforestry system, a alternatives are offered to reduce climate change, achieve more than 2.5 times the production of forage and guarantee its availability during drought, maintain a high biodiversity of flora and fauna and 11 times production of milk, and other benefits.
GOOD FOR THE FUTURE
The general director of Food Self-Sufficiency of the Ministry of Agriculture, Rolando Ernesto Herrera y Saldaña, explained that the impact of climate change on livestock farming can be seen in droughts and floods, which will reduce food production and livestock activity. The panorama that livestock farming will face, according to the expert, is a low availability of water for the production of forage, the liquid available for irrigation for crops that are directly consumed by people and the formation of rations can be changed with a large amount. of the byproducts..