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Monday, October 3, 2022

Hubble sees red supergiant recovering after explosion

NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center / Chris Smith, KBRwyle

red giant stars

By analyzing data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and several other observatories, astronomers concluded that the bright red supergiant star Betelgeuse literally exploded at its apex in 2019.

It lost a large part of its visible surface and produced an enormous surface mass ejection (EMS). This is something that has never been observed before in the normal behavior of a star.

Our Sun regularly ejects parts of its weak solar atmosphere, the corona, in a phenomenon known as a coronal mass ejection (CME). But the Betelgeuse EMS ejected 400 billion times more mass than a typical EMC!

The demonic star is still slowly recovering from this devastating upheaval. “Betelgeuse continues, this time, to do very unusual things, The interior is like jumping”, said Andrea Dupree of the Center for Astrophysics | Harvard and Smithsonian in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

These new observations provide clues as to how red stars lose mass at the end of their lives as their nuclear fusion furnaces are exhausted before exploding as supernovae.

The amount of massive damage significantly affects your fate. However, Betelgeuse’s surprisingly petty behavior doesn’t seem to suggest that the star is going to explode any time soon. Therefore, mass loss is not necessary. sign of an impending eruption,

Dupree is now putting all the pieces of the puzzle of the star’s petulant behavior before, after and during the explosion into a coherent story of a never-before-seen titanic spasm in an aging star.

This includes new spectroscopic and imaging data from the STELLA Robotic Observatory, Fred L. Whipple Observatory’s TRES (Tillinghast Reflector Eschel Spectrograph), NASA’s STEREO-A (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory), NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and AAVSO (American Association of Variables). Huh. Star Observer). Dupree emphasized that the Hubble data were instrumental in helping solve the mystery.

“We’ve never seen massive ejection from the surface of a star. This is something that we do not fully understand. This is an entirely new phenomenon that we can directly observe and resolve details of the surface with Hubble. We are seeing stellar growth in real time. ,

Hubble Sees Red Supergiant Recovering After Explosion

The sequence of events that occurred on the red supergiant Betelgeuse in recent years.

The Titanic explosion in 2019 was probably caused by a convective plume, more than 1.6 million kilometers in diameter, bubbling up from the star’s interior.

This produced shocks and pulsations, which knocked out a portion of the photosphere, leaving the star with a large cold surface area beneath the cloud of dust generated by the star. cool piece of photosphere, Betelgeuse is now struggling to recover from the injury.

With a mass several times the mass of our Moon, the fragmented piece of photosphere was accelerated into space and cooled as a cloud of dust that blocked the star’s light as seen by observers on Earth.

The dimming, which began in late 2019 and lasted a few months, was readily noticeable even by backyard observers, who observed the star’s change in brightness. One of the brightest stars in the sky, Betelgeuse is easily found on the right shoulder of the constellation Orion.

even more wonderful, 400 day pulse rate The supergiant no longer exists, probably at least temporarily. For nearly 200 years, astronomers have clearly measured this rhythm as variations in brightness and speed on Betelgeuse’s surface. His commotion reveals the intensity of the explosion.

Dupree suggests that the inner convection cells of the star, which drive the regular beat, may be spinning like an unbalanced washing machine. TRES and Hubble’s spectra suggest that the outer layers may be back to normal, but the surface is still bouncing like jelly as the photosphere is reconstructed.

Although our Sun has a coronal mass ejection that ejects tiny bits of the outer atmosphere, astronomers have never seen such a large amount of a planet’s visible surface. star being shot in space, Therefore, surface mass ejection and coronal mass ejection may be separate phenomena.

Betelgeuse is now so large that if we were to place the Sun at the center of our solar system, its outer surface would extend beyond the orbit of Jupiter. Dupree used Hubble in 1996 to resolve hot spots on the surface of the star. This was the first direct image of a star other than the Sun.

NASA’s Webb Space Telescope may be able to detect ejecta in the infrared during the journey. far from the star,

World Nation News Desk
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