Kennedy Space Center, Fla. – When NASA launches its Artemis I moon rocket with the Orion spacecraft, humans will not be on board, but scientists will focus on three manikins that will collect critical data during the multi-week excursion.
The “passengers,” named “Campos,” “Helga” and “Zohar,” will be equipped with sensors to collect critical information on pressure and radiation levels to improve safety for future spacecraft.
NASA says the manikin named Campos who will be in Orion’s commander’s seat will also wear a special survival suit, similar to what future Artemis mission astronauts might wear.
“It is important to us that we obtain data from the Artemis I manikin to ensure all the newly designed systems, coupled with an energy damping system that are mounted on the seats, integrate together and provide protection. Which will require crew members in preparation for our first crewed mission on Artemis II,” said Jason Hutt, NASA Lead for Orion Crew Systems Integration.
The other two Phantoms will fly under the names “Zohar” and “Helga” and will be dedicated to monitoring radiation levels throughout the mission.
NASA says they expect inanimate crews to experience four times the force of gravity, and after the mission ends, experts will compare the data to previously conducted ground tests.
After a thorough review, the agency says that if they can minimize the impact on future astronauts, Artemis II could take humans to space and back to the Moon by 2025.
The Meaning Behind the Name of “Campos”
After an extensive naming contest, NASA says more people voted to name the commanding manikin “Campos” than any other option.
The name is revered in space history and is dedicated to Arturo Campos, an electrical engineer created in 1970 to miraculously bring Apollo 13 back to Earth.
After an oxygen tank exploded and severely damaged the Apollo spacecraft, NASA says Campos reconstructed a plan to bring the three astronauts home safely.
“Our return to the Moon via Artemis is a global effort – and we are always looking at new ways to engage the public in our missions. This competition, which is helping to pave the way for a human return to the Moon, Our NASA family also honors Arturo Campos – an important figure in the family,” Brian Odom, NASA’s acting chief historian at Marshall Space Flight Center, said in a statement.
In the same capsule, “Campos” Manikin will be joined by two others to further advance scientists’ knowledge of space on the human body.
Helga and Johri
Two replicas of the female body will measure the exposure to natural radiation that astronauts face when they are away from Earth’s atmosphere.
Radiation comes from many sources in the galaxy, and NASA limits astronauts’ exposure to reduce the risk of health problems.
The Matryoshka AstroRad Radiation Experiment (MARE), led by the German Aerospace Center, says Helga Artemis I will fly without a protective vest during the mission, while its fellow Phantom will wear the latest safety features.
Both the Helga and the Zohar will have thousands of sensors to monitor pressure and radiation.
Experts consider women more at risk of radiation because of the sensitive tissues and organs.
“With MARE, the largest radiation experiment ever conducted beyond low Earth orbit, we’re looking to find out how radiation levels affect female astronauts during their entire Moon flight, and what protective measures.” may help counter this, Thomas Berger, chief of biophysics at the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine, said in a statement.
NASA is targeting the August launch of the Artemis I mission that will send the Orion spacecraft around the Moon with a non-living crew back to Earth.