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Monday, January 30, 2023

Most Common Eye Disorders – Interactive Doctor

We don’t always pay it the same attention as other diseases, but the truth is that eye deformities are more common than they seem. For example, the data from the National Health and Well-Being Survey are1 (National Health and Well-Being Survey) 2018, which revealed that the prevalence of eye diseases in Spain was 16%. The figure was higher among women between the ages of 55 and 64, as ocular diseases are more common in women in almost all age groups.

most frequent ocular pathology

Consulting the data offered by the Spanish Society of Ophthalmology about which are the most frequent ocular pathologies, as well as their causes and treatments2We can highlight the following:

  • eye disease, Inside the eye, the aqueous humor necessary to maintain proper function of the eye is constantly being made. In the case of glaucoma, what happens is that there is an imbalance between the amount that is produced and the amount that can be eliminated. The aim of glaucoma treatment is to lower the pressure inside the eye. Depending on the strain and stage of the disease, it can be treated with eye drops that reduce eye pressure or through laser or surgical treatment of the disease. It is the leading cause of blindness and irreversible visual loss in the world.3, If it is not diagnosed and treated in time, it can lead to a deterioration in the visual field, which can sometimes be severe and can even lead to blindness.
  • uveitis, This is how inflammation of the uvea, which is the middle layer that makes up the eyeball, is defined, although in general terms any intraocular inflammation is considered uveitis. Uveitis is often not a distinct disease, and may be part of a variety of diseases that affect the rest of the body. In this sense, uveitis may appear to be associated with systemic diseases that are mediated by alterations in our immune defense mechanisms. Despite all the recent advances in diagnostic methods, one in three uveitis is considered idiopathic.
  • detachment retina, Most retinal detachments are caused by one or more retinal holes through which fluid can drain from the vitreous space into the space between the retina and the back wall of the eye, causing the retina to gradually detach. It is one of the most serious eye diseases with the worst prognosis if left untreated. However, if the retina is put back in place over a short period of time (days), it usually recovers near-normal function, recovering the lost vision.

Retinopathy, Cataract and Conjunctivitis

  • retinopathy diabetes, It is a complication caused by diabetes which is caused by a series of changes in the retinal vessels. Mostly, it affects both the eyes. In the early stages, people with diabetic retinopathy do not notice any change in vision, but as the disease progresses, it usually causes reduced vision, which in some cases is irreversible. The duration and poor control of diabetes are factors that contribute to the development of diabetic retinopathy.
  • cataracts, This is the name given to the loss of transparency of a natural lens inside the eye called the crystalline lens. Its shape is similar to that of a lentil and its main function is to help the eye to focus images clearly. As a cataract develops, the crystalline lens loses transparency and flexibility and shrinks until the ability to focus near vision is lost. Surgery is the only treatment to correct vision loss due to cataracts. There are no medications or eye drops that stop growth or restore the transparency of the crystalline lens.
  • Conjunctivitis, It consists of inflammation of the conjunctiva, a thin and transparent mucous membrane that covers the surface of the eye. This swelling makes the blood vessels more visible, causing the eye to turn pink or red. It is one of the most common eye conditions. In the case of allergic conjunctivitis, it is caused by an excessive reaction of our body to an external agent (allergen). It may appear alone or in association with other allergic diseases such as rhinitis or atopic dermatitis and other manifestations such as asthma, rhinitis, urticaria, etc. On the other hand, viral conjunctivitis is caused due to virus infection in the eye. It may be associated with an upper respiratory tract infection, cold, or sore throat. It usually starts in one eye and may move to the other eye over the next few days. It spreads easily and rapidly between people.

Pathology according to different ages

It should be noted that the incidence of ocular pathology varies according to the age of the individual. Thus, in children, some hereditary pathologies such as retinitis pigmentosa may have an early onset.4, It is the most common cause of hereditary retinal degeneration. It is a relatively common disease, occurring in one out of every 2,000 births in Spain. It is estimated that about 15,000 will be affected in our country and there will be more than 60,000 carriers of the mutation which has the potential to cause disease.

However, in adolescents, it is more common to encounter a pathology such as keratoconus. It is a pathology that actually usually appears in adolescence up to the age of 20 years. It should be remembered that, as explained by the American Academy of Ophthalmology5The cornea is the transparent dome-shaped window at the front of the eye and its job is to focus light into the eye. Thus, what happens in keratoconus is that the cornea becomes thin and bulges out like a cone. Due to the change in the shape of the cornea, the rays of light become blurred. As a result, vision becomes blurred and distorted, making some daily tasks such as reading difficult.

On the other hand, in adults, cataract is the most frequent pathology, since it is related precisely to age. However, according to calculations by the Spanish Society of Implant-Refractive Eye Surgery (SECOIR)6In Spain, 450,000 cataract operations were performed per year in 2019.

ocular deficiencies

On the other hand, beyond the most common malformations, the influence of ocular deficiencies should also be highlighted. Thus, according to ‘Studies on Vision in Spain’7, carried out by the Clinica Baviera Ophthalmological Company, almost three out of four Spaniards (72%) suffer from some visual decrease, which increases from the age of 45. Despite this, there are 21.8% who have never got their eyes checked.

These figures match those of the 2013 ‘White Paper on Vision in Spain’8, published by the Employers Association FEDAO, Spanish Federation of Associations of the Optical Sector, General Council of Colleges of Optometrists. It states that, in Spain, 53.4% ​​of the population uses some form of vision correction system. In particular, about 25 million Spaniards use glasses or contact lenses. On the other hand, despite the fact that vision loss is considered a significant issue, the reality is that only 40% of the population undergoes regular check-ups.

Of these deficiencies, the same document states that the most frequent is presbyopia (strain of the eyes). It is a disease that 67% of Spaniards over the age of 40 suffer from. In second place is myopia, an eye problem that affects 29% of the population. Its prevalence is higher among young people aged 18 to 34, with an average of 2.94 diopters. In third place would be astigmatism, which is suffered by 24.8% of the population with an average of 1.54 diopters.

World Nation News Desk
World Nation News Deskhttps://worldnationnews.com/
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