Despite increased investment in energy efficiency and reduction in energy intensity, energy consumption and CO2 emissions from the construction sector have returned to their highest levels since the COVID-19 pandemic. a new report (1) From Global Alliance for Buildings and Construction (Global ABC)Created by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP).
34% of energy demand
Posted in latest round of climate talks Egypt, COP27The Global Status Report on Building and Construction 2022 concluded that the sector is responsible for more than 34% of energy demand and about 37% of energy and process-related CO2 emissions in 2021.
CO2 emissions related to the area’s operating energy reached ten gigatonnes of CO2 equivalentAnd 5% above 2020 levels and 2% above the pre-pandemic peak of 2019. In 2021, operational energy demand Heating, cooling, lighting and equipment for buildings It grew by about 4% from 2020 and 3% from 2019.
Global ABC Report
According to the GlobalABC report, this means the gap between the region’s climate performance and the 2050 decarbonization trajectory is widening. The coalition has 256 members, including 37 countries.
,Years of warnings about the effects of climate change have become a reality –Laments Inger Andersen, UNEP Executive Director–. If we don’t reduce emissions rapidly Paris AgreementWe will have more serious problems”.
80% of it comes from fossil fuels
“Area of Buildings represent 40% of Europe’s energy demand, 80% of it from fossil fuels — that continues to be –. This makes the region an area for immediate action, investment and policies to promote short-term and long-term energy security.”
decarbonization of building area It is necessary by 2050 to achieve these reductions. To reduce global emissions, the sector must improve the energy performance of buildings, dReduce the carbon footprint of building materialsAction as well as increasing political commitments and increasing investment in energy efficiency.
The region’s emission intensity in kilograms of CO2 per square meter fell from 43 in 2015 to 40 in 2021, while the energy intensity in kilowatt hours per square meter decreased from 153 in 2015 to 152 in 2021.
outpacing development efforts
las investing in energy efficiency The number of buildings has reached unprecedented levels, increasing by 16% from 2020 levels to $237 billion in 2021. However, development is lagging behind efforts to reduce energy efficiency and energy intensity.
The increase in global gross floor area between 2015 and 2021 is equal to the total floor area of buildings in Germany, France, Italy and the Netherlands, if built on the same level, approximately 24,000 square kilometers,
The report said that investments in energy efficiency should be continued to cope with escalating crises such as the war and the ensuing crisis in Ukraine. Energy crisis, and cost of living crisis– To reduce energy demand, avoid CO2 emissions and reduce the volatility of energy costs,
However, reports suggest that the sector may still change. For example, the rising cost of fossil fuels and the cost of living crisis due to the war in Ukraine are encouraging investment in energy efficiency, although loss of purchasing power And the impact of labor and materials can stifle investment: “The solution may lie in governments targeting support for investment activities in low- or zero-carbon buildings through financial and non-financial incentives,” Anderson continues.
It is also necessary to include buildings in the climate commitments of the Paris Agreement to reduce emissions from the region – known as Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) – and Mandatory Building Energy Code,
number of NDC Mention of buildings increased from 88 in 2015 to 158 in 2021. However, in advance Policies and action on buildings and construction remain slow, Over the same period, the number of countries with energy codes for buildings increased from 62 to 79. However, only 26% of countries have mandatory energy codes for the entire region.
greenhouse gas emissions
Gross resource use is projected to double by 2060, and steelThe Solid And this Solid are already the main contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. The materials used in the construction of buildings are already almost 9% of total CO2 emissions energy related,
Carbon embodied in buildings, i.e. emissions associated with building materials and processes, must be addressed with energy saving measures to prevent them from reducing. However, the sector can reduce its influence, for example, by demanding Alternative materials and decarbonizing conventional materials such as cement,
The use of alternative materials is exclusively relevant to africa, The African population is expected to reach 2.4 billion people in 2050, and 80% of this growth will be in cities. it is estimated that 70% of African real estate stock Scheduled for 2040 has not yet been made.
Buildings resistant to the effects of climate change
There is a need to take people out of it to avoid increasing emissions while building the park. informal settlements And to build buildings resistant to the effects of climate change, the African region must seek sustainable building materials and design techniques in which the continent is rich,
Africa is also rich in renewable energy sourcesSolar and wind, which countries can use to permanently power their buildings.
Formation of a coalition of national stakeholders to set goals and strategies towards a sustainable, zero-carbon and resilient buildings and construction sector through the Roadmap for Buildings, are part of the key recommendations. Following the process and model of the GlobalABC roadmap, More than 30 countries and territories have developed a roadmap,
Mandatory Energy Code
As such, they recommend that national and subnational governments establish mandatory energy codes for buildings and set a path for their building codes and standards to reach zero levels as soon as possible.
Also, governments and non-state actors should increase their investment energy efficiencyWhereas the construction and real estate industries must implement zero carbon strategies for new and existing buildings.
In addition, they recommend that the building materials and construction industries Committed to reducing their CO2 emissions Further across its value chain, governments, especially in cities, implement policies that promote a shift towards “circular physical economies”.
Finally, they point out that rapidly growing countries and economies need to invest in capacity building and supply chains that promote energy efficient design and low carbon and sustainable construction.
- (1) 2022 Global Building and Construction Status Report, Global Alliance for Buildings and Construction (Global ABC).