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Sunday, May 29, 2022

Omicron increases the risk of upper respiratory tract infections, cardiac arrest in young children

New York: Because of their small and relatively foldable airways, young children with Omicron are more vulnerable to upper respiratory tract infections such as croup, which if serious can lead to cardiac arrest, a study finds.

Croup is a type of respiratory disease, medically known as laryngotracheitis, in infants and young children. It is characterized by barking cough, and noisy breathing. In severe cases it can dangerously restrict breathing.

A team of researchers from the Universities of Colorado and Northwestern United States examined 18,849 children admitted to the hospital with SARS-CoV-2.

Their results published in the JAMA Pediatrics showed that upper respiratory tract infection increased during the Omicron boom. More than one-fifth of children admitted to hospital with SARS-CoV-2 and upper respiratory tract infection developed serious illnesses.

About 384 had upper respiratory tract infection. Severe illness, defined as requiring invasive ventilation, vasopressors, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or death, occurred in 81 children.

The study also found that children with upper respiratory tract infection during the Omicron period were more likely to be younger and less likely to receive dexamethasone or develop severe disease compared to those in the pre-Omicron period.

“Children with severe upper respiratory tract infection are at risk of cardiac arrest due to rapid obstruction of the upper respiratory tract. They may need therapies typically provided in intensive care units, including regular administration of nebulized racemic epinephrine, helium-oxygen mixtures and intubation, ”said researchers, including Blake Martin, from the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Colorado’s School of Medicine.

“While the rate of SARS-CoV-2 pediatric upper airway infection is not overwhelmingly high, understanding this new clinical phenotype and the potential for acute upper airway obstruction may help guide therapeutic decision making,” they added.

After being tracked out of African countries in November last year, Omicron soon gained worldwide presence and became the dominant tribe replacing Delta. It became predominant in the US the week ending December 25th.

It is known that Omicron causes lower severity diseases than the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant. This may be because Omicron replicates less efficiently in lung parenchyma and more efficiently in the conductive airways, ”the researchers said.

The team explained that SARS-CoV-2 can cause serious pediatric diseases, including acute Covid-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome. Published reports associating SARS-CoV-2 with upper respiratory tract infection, such as laryngotracheobronchitis (croup), are limited to small case ranges.

Although non-coronaviruses, including parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virus, cause most upper respiratory tract infections, coronaviruses (eg type NL63) are also commonly implicated.

World Nation News Deskhttps://www.worldnationnews.com
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