Crimea-Congo virus hemorrhagic fever (FHCC) is a zoonotic viral disease that spreads mainly genus tick Hyaloma, There is also a risk of infection by fluids or aerosols of infected persons.
Prevention is based on personal protection measures against bites, Removing Ticks Quickly and Correctly Early identification and management of cases to establish isolation and personal protection measures in case of bites and to avoid person-to-person infection.
Considering its impact, the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network (Deer) Carlos III Institute of Health (ISC III) has published a new epidemiological report on the status of brucellosis in humans in Spain between 2016 and 2022.
is one reported disease (EDO) Urgent since 2015 through RENAVE. because it is emerging in spain, the detection of a case would be considered an outbreak. This should be reported as an alert to the Health Alert and Emergency Coordination Center (CCAES) and send individual information of cases to the National Epidemiology Center (CNE) through normal EDO notification channels.
In Spain, the virus was first detected in ticks in Cáceres in 2010. The first human cases were diagnosed in 2016. And since then there have been sporadic cases. In addition, another case has been identified retrospectively, corresponding to 2013, has been described in the scientific literature, which would constitute the first human case identified to date.
From 2016 to 2022, CNE is notified through RENAVE, 11 cases by FHCC, all confirmed and not imported, The first cases of 2016 occurred in a patient exposed in Ávila and admitted to a hospital in Madrid, where another secondary case occurred due to infection from an earlier healthcare environment.
There were 2 other cases in 2018 (one in Badajoz and another in Salamanca), 3 cases were reported from Salamanca in 2020, 2 cases in 2021 (Salamanca and León) and another 2 cases in 2022 (Leon). According to the month of onset of symptoms, cases transmitted by ticks occurred between April and August: April (1), June (4), July (3), August (2).
Of the total cases, 9 (81.8%) were male and 2 were female. The mean age was 53 years, range was 29 to 74 years. Of the contagion cases in rural areas, all except one had a history of tick bites or exposure to the skin. Of these risk factor was contact with animals (4) or risk in the field for walking or caring for the garden (6).
Of the cases, 10 presented hemorrhagic symptoms and/or thrombocytopenia and one (a case diagnosed retrospectively in 2018) presented only febrile symptoms. all require hospitalization and 4 cases (36.4%) died: 51, 62, 69 and 74 year old men, all of them presented hemorrhagic manifestations.
It’s probably been around longer than you think
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is an emerging disease in Spain, although it is established in its zoonotic cycle. Presumably, as indicated by ISCIII, the virus has been circulating for longer than previously thought. has been notified Consecutive cases in last 3 seasons (2020, 2021 and 2022).
All reported cases have shown symptoms during vector activity season: Between April (first case in 2021) and August. After this month, no case has been reported so far.
The majority of tick-infected cases are male, older adults. All the deceased were men above 50 years of age. With hemorrhagic symptoms and / or thrombocytopenia. “Malignancy is similar to that described in the literature, keeping in mind that severe infections are those that are monitored (hemorrhagic fever),” he explains.
of the risk factors identified among the cases risk in the field (of a walk or looking after a garden) without the presence of animals, more often than not with contact with animals.
From ISCIII they show that both the animal host and Most human cases are asymptomaticIt is therefore necessary to maintain a high index of suspicion in cases with compatible symptoms, especially in identified risk areas, without ruling them out. Chances are the virus is present in other areas,