The days of the lithium-ion battery are numbered. Although it is still used, technology has advanced to the point that there are several alternatives to its use that are more durable and sustainable.
Portable consumer electronics, such as cell phones and computers, and electric cars all use lithium-ion batteries as their first choice.
It is characterized by a high power-to-weight ratio, energy efficiency, performance at high temperatures, and low self-discharge. In addition, most components are recyclable.
However, its production depends on lithium, a finite resource with a huge impact on the environment. For this reason, large companies rely on other types of batteries.
Let’s see what other battery types are coming to the market below.
The first thing we should know about is the nickel metal hydride battery. It is widely used in IT and medical equipment, but also in HEV vehicles (hybrid vehicles), and its specific energy is appropriate for the equipment.
Its lifespan is much longer than that of a lead-acid battery, and it is safe and tolerant of misuse. The negatives are high cost, high self-discharge, and heat generation at high temperatures.
Another well-known battery on the market is lead-acid. It is powerful, economical, safe, and reliable, but has low specific energy, low performance at low temperatures, and a short life cycle.
Ultracapacitors belong to a third type of battery. They store energy in a polarized liquid between an electrode and an electrolyte. Its energy storage capacity increases with increasing liquid surface area.
They are suitable as secondary energy storage in electric vehicles as they help electrochemical batteries balance charging power.
Also worth mentioning are lithium-sulfur batteries, which replace cobalt with sulfur as the cathode material, which is much more common and environmentally friendly than lithium.
Another battery used is the sodium ion battery, which replaces lithium ions with sodium ions, which are far more common on our planet. It has a lower energy density and a shorter lifetime.