Sputnik 2 was the second spacecraft placed in orbit around the Earth, the November 3, 1957, which was the first to bring biological material. It is a conical capsule four meters tall with a base two meters in diameter. It contains several compartments intended to house radio transmitters, a telemetry system, a programmable unit, a cabin temperature and change control system, and scientific instruments. The dog Laika traveled in a sealed hut separated from the others.
Biological and engineering data are transmitted to Earth within 15 minutes per orbit. On board there are two spectrometers aimed at measuring solar radiation (ultraviolet emissions and X-rays) and cosmic rays. Sputnik 2 did not have a television camera (the dog images from Sputnik 5 were confused with Laika).
The first to enter orbit was a dog originally called Kudryavka (little curly-haired dog), which became known around the world as Laika because of the name of her breed. It weighed about 6 kilos. The pressurized cabin of the Sputnik 2 allows you to lie down or stand up and is padded. The ventilation system supplied him with oxygen; Food and water in the form of gelatin. Laika is restrained with a harness, a bag that collects feces, and electrodes monitor vital signs. An early telemetry report indicated the traveler was agitated, but eating. There was no possibility of returning to Earth, so it was planned to sacrifice him after 10 days in orbit. However, in October 2002 Russian sources revealed that Laika died within a few hours due to excessive heat and stress. The mission provided scientists with the first data on the behavior of a living organism in space.