(CNN Spanish) — Immigration status is one of the pivots to the next midterm elections in the United States, and it is no less: According to census data, there are about 45 million immigrants living in the country.
In addition, the issue has escalated over the past period due to the fact that the number of people crossing the country’s southern border illegally exceeds a historical record: 2 million during fiscal year 2022, according to office figures. There were more registrations. US Customs and Border Protection (CBP).
It’s an issue that puts pressure on Joe Biden’s government, when little is left for the midterm elections that will, among other things, define who has control of the Senate and House of Representatives, which will help boost legislative initiatives. Or is the key to improvement. existing ones..
In general, Democrats and Republicans have campaigned ahead of November’s elections, with opposing views on what to do in the face of pressures on the immigration system.
Republicans prioritize border security and deportation into the country illegally, while Democrats place more importance on the path to legal status for those entering the country illegally, according to a September Pew Research Center report. This as children.
Since taking office in January 2021, Biden has worked to reverse Trump-era immigration restrictions by increasing refugee admissions, preserving DACA, and not enforcing a “public fee” rule that denies green cards to immigrants. has done. Immigrants who can access benefits like Medicaid, among other things. However, everything indicates that it has not managed to move forward.
Here are key elements about immigration status and those that could change after November’s elections:
It is a first point of conflict for the Biden government, as the increase in arrivals has led officials to attribute the greater numbers of people to Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela as a result of the worsening of the crisis in those countries.
This is no trivial fact: while the number of migrants who arrived at the border decades ago was much more Mexican, and a few years earlier added people from the northern triangle—Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, many of those who arrived today are so. We do. From Cuba, Venezuela, Nicaragua and Colombia and Peru.
The government comes up with a state of paralysis with respect to border security in elections, or at least commuting. A source close to the White House recently told CNN, “The paralysis at the border has affected his entire schedule.”
One of the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) plans months ago was to transport a portion of those people to cities in the interior of the country for processing. However, logistics difficulties forced the initiative to be abandoned. According to several sources close to the government, this has happened on several occasions with the tug-of-war between the White House and DHS, which has fueled frustration, especially among those on the front line.
Despite the fact that everything indicates the Democratic government is unclear about what plan to execute at the border, spokesman Abdullah Hassan recently defended what has been done so far: “encouraging a substantive debate.” Do, listen to different views and get a lot more. Experience before making political decisions affecting the lives of millions is a feature, not a bug.”
A DHS spokesman argued along the same lines: “The government has responded to an unprecedented number of irregular immigrants trying to enter the United States, withholding more drugs and disrupting more smuggling operations than ever before.” Reversing all the cruel policies and harmful of the previous government.”
Relocation of Immigrants by Republican Governors
Several Republican governors, including Florida’s Ron DeSantis, Texas’ Greg Abbott, Arizona’s Doug Ducey, have sent immigrant groups to Democrat-run cities as an insult to them and the White House, bringing immigration to the fore. . There was national buzz and sharp criticism from immigration advocates, city officials and the Biden administration.
“Vice President Harris confirms that our border is ‘safe’ and denies distress,” tweeted Governor Greg Abbott, the main promoter of sending migrants to the country’s northeast. “We’re sending migrants to your backyard to tell the Biden administration to do its job and make the border safe.”
The message perfectly sums up the confrontation between the Republican governors of the South and the Democratic federal government. In the midst of this political controversy, were immigrants, who arrive in the United States after a hard journey and beset with threats.
In the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, under the Trump administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a public health order that officials said was aimed at stopping the spread of the virus. It became known as Title 42, after the part of the US code that allowed the CDC director to issue it, and allowed officials to quickly evacuate migrants across US land borders.
The title has been extended several times beyond the Republican presidency. Despite campaign promises, it has been used to repatriate thousands of Venezuelan migrants arriving at the US-Mexico border under the Biden administration.
“Expanding Title 42 to include the people of Venezuela now adds salt to an open wound, while further destroying the asylum system that President Biden restored,” Democratic Sen. Bob Menendez of New Jersey said in a statement. promised to do.” Criticism multiplied among progressive segments of the Democratic Party and immigrant advocates.
Thanks to Title 42, border officials can immediately expel migrants entering the US through Canada and Mexico, with migrant minors exempt from the measure.
d a c a
The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, created in 2012, protects approximately 800,000 young immigrants from deportation who came to or stayed in the United States illegally before their 16th birthday. In addition, DACA also provided recipients, known as dreamers (dreamers), the right to do some work.
However, DACA does not provide a path to citizenship, as there are limited avenues to allow unauthorized immigrants to gain the permanent resident status provided by a green card. green cardCompared to those entering legally, for example, with a temporary visa.
In addition, DACA suffered a severe setback in 2017 when the Donald Trump government announced the cancellation of the program, a decision that was blocked by the Supreme Court but that contributed to increasing uncertainty among its thousands of beneficiaries.
In August of this year, the Biden administration took a step toward preserving the program when DHS announced the final rule, which replaces the Obama-era memo.
“I will do everything in my power to protect the Dreamers, but Republicans in Congress must stop pushing the bill that provides a path to citizenship for the Dreamers,” Biden said then. “Not only is this the right thing to do, it’s also the smart thing for our economy and our communities.”
TPS, Temporary Security Status
Hundreds of thousands of immigrants living in the United States could find themselves in legal limbo after talks broke down between lawyers and the Joe Biden administration over temporary protected status (TPS).
The case stems from a 2018 lawsuit against the Trump administration, which sought to end a form of humanitarian aid for migrants from El Salvador, Haiti, Nicaragua, Sudan, and later Nepal and Honduras.
Temporary Protected Status (TPS) protects immigrants from countries that have been affected by extreme conditions, such as pandemics, wars, or natural disasters, and who are in the United States. But the Trump administration tried to have eventual protections for most immigrants under the program, arguing that the initial conditions they needed no longer existed.
Yet the government recently expanded TPS to other nationalities, giving approximately 143,800 immigrants from Afghanistan, Cameroon and Ukraine the opportunity to apply for a time-limited permit to live and work in the United States and avoid potential deportation. Gave.
DHS, which oversees the program, recently extended, designated or re-designated TPS protection for eligible immigrants from Myanmar (also known as Burma), South Sudan, Sudan, Syria and Venezuela.
Exactly in September, the expansion of this form of humanitarian aid to Venezuela came into effect. It will run till 10 March 2024.
Today, following the Biden administration’s most recent additions and expansions, nearly 500,000 people from 15 countries are currently registered for or eligible for TPS.
Priscilla Alvarez, Angela Reyes Hazek, Katherine E. Shoichette contributed to this report.