Wednesday, November 30, 2022

Why is the sugar test done for pregnant women?

Why is the sugar test done for pregnant women?

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that appears for the first time during pregnancy in pregnant women who have never had the disease before. It usually appears in the middle of pregnancy and some women may have this problem in more than one pregnancy.

Gestational diabetes is a disease caused by metabolic changes due to pregnancy that is characterized by an increase in the amount of glucose in the blood. The Clinica de Navarra states that it can cause negative effects on both the mother and the pregnancy, and on the fetus. In pregnant women, a decrease in blood glucose levels can occur, such as ketoacidosis or hypoglycemia if the control is too low or too high, respectively. It also makes it easy to get vaginal yeast infections, pyelonephritis, etc. The amount of amniotic fluid may be higher than normal, and blood pressure abnormalities are seen more frequently in these pregnancies.

Considering childbirth, as fetuses get larger, there is a risk of vaginal tearing and a greater need to use instruments. If maternal blood glucose levels are elevated early in pregnancy, the chances of miscarriage and fetal malformation are high.

Spain is a country with a high prevalence of diabetes, therefore control is carried out by universal screening in pregnant women. The Spanish Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (SEGO) states that 1% of all pregnant women have pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) and 12% of pregnant women will have gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) at some point during their pregnancy. For timely detection, SEGO recommends a glucose tolerance test for all pregnant women between 24-28 weeks and in the first trimester of pregnancy in case of at-risk pregnant women.

Navara Clinic indicates that if you have symptoms that may indicate you have diabetes, such as being very thirsty, urinating a lot (sugar is lost in the urine and a lot of urine is produced to eliminate it ) then you should see a specialist ) or get very hungry.

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The Mayo Clinic explains how this two-step test is performed and why it is uncomfortable for some pregnant women, especially because of nausea. First, you have to drink a solution containing 50 grams of sugar and wait an hour in the waiting room without eating anything. The second part involves taking a blood test that will measure blood glucose. After performing the glucose tolerance test, daily activities can be resumed immediately, rest is not necessary.

If the test results are above normal values, the test is usually repeated to confirm the diagnosis. The results that determine whether you have gestational diabetes are based on:

  • If the blood sugar level is less than 140 mg/dl then it is considered normal.
  • If the blood glucose level is between 140 mg/dl and 190 mg/dl, a new, more accurate three-hour oral glucose tolerance study should be performed to diagnose gestational diabetes.
  • If the blood glucose level is 190 ml/dl or more, it indicates diabetes.
    Gestational. It is possible that no further tests are needed. In case of testing positive for gestational diabetes, continuous monitoring should be done with the specialist who will definitely prescribe a special diet and moderate exercise and in some cases medication. Most women with gestational diabetes give birth to healthy babies. However, without careful management, gestational diabetes can lead to life-threatening pregnancy complications for the mother and baby (preeclampsia). Gestational diabetes can also increase the risk of having an overweight baby at birth, which can increase the risk of birth trauma or lead to a cesarean section. Often: fasting blood glucose, profiles with established diets and blood glucose curves. The fasting period should be short and the mother should lead a healthy lifestyle and should not consume alcoholic beverages or smoke. SEGO also recommends that women with gestational diabetes have an oral glucose tolerance test after fasting. Birth. This test is used to screen for type 2 diabetes because women who develop gestational diabetes are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.


    The Mayo Clinic, in its ‘Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy’, states that the glucose tolerance test, also known as the ‘one-hour oral glucose tolerance test’, is the most effective method for detecting gestational diabetes, especially if there is a risk Huh:

  • Having a body mass index of 30 or higher (obesity).
  • Lack of physical activity.
  • Gestational diabetes in previous pregnancy.
  • Having a disease associated with the development of diabetes, such as metabolic syndrome or polycystic ovarian syndrome.
  • Having a blood relative who has diabetes.
  • Previous delivery of a baby weighing more than 4.1 kg.
  • Race and ethnicity: Black, Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian American women are at increased risk of developing gestational diabetes.
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